Archives for posts with tag: nuclear

Again and again we are told that there has not been found a solution for the used fuel from nuclear plants.
Trying to bring an end to this (deliberate?) misunderstanding, the following should be considered.
_______________________________________________________________________
After use, the radioactive fuel elements are stored under water.
– Three years at the power plant.
– Thereafter some 30 years at a temporary storage.

Thus, after almost all radioactivity has “evaporated”,

there are several possibilities.
1) “Wait and see” (Waiting for new regulations or possibilities)
2) Final disposal deep underground. (Almost abandoned)
3) Safe storage for future use. (Most sensible)
4) Reprocessing (As done in France)

About Reprocessing

During use, different harmful elements build up in the fuel rods and they should be removed before there is risk of cracks developing.
However well over 90 % of the original energi is still left, together with different useful elements.
But still
As long as the market has plenty of cheap uranium reprocessing is not economically feasible.
It is the reason for “Safe Storage”.

Dear unknown reader

Somehow I think the above notes should answer the question about nuclear waste.
If you want further details: Have a look at http://wp.me/p1RKWc-LC

However, I have a request:
This post was ment as an answer to the repeated statement that

“The problem related to used nuclear fuel has not been solved.”

Assuming that it is not based upon your own observation,
I dare to ask you – –
Go to the sources of this obviously wrong “information” and ask them to stop their (deliberate?) misinformation of the public.

Greetings and good reflection
Thorkil Søe

Hvis man spørger hvorfor den tyske befolkning i almindelighed er imod A-kraft, så kan man måske finde noget af svaret i det følgende.
For en ordens skyld nævner jeg at den tyske reaktion senere viste sig at være ubegrundet.
MEN
Erfaringen viser at sådanne senere vurderinger har det har megen lille indvirkning på folkestemningen.
________________________________________________________________

KiKK studiet

A German study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants called “the KiKK study” was published in December 2007.
– – Det var 20 år efter ulykken ved Tjernobyl 1986
– – men før ulykken ved Fukushima (11 Marts 2011)
According to Ian Fairlie it “resulted in a public outcry and media debate in Germany which has received little attention elsewhere”.
– – Tre år efter KiKK-studiet (September 2010) introduceredes
– – det meget omtalte Energiewende.
– – Det var et år før ulykken ved Fukushima. (Marts 2011)
Således kan man formode at der har været en sammenhæng mellem KiKK-studiet og Energiewende.

– – “It [Energiewende] has been established “partly as a result of an earlier study by Körblein and Hoffmann, which had found statistically significant increases in solid cancers (54%), and in leukemia (76%) in children aged less than 5 within 5 km of 15 German nuclear power plant sites.”

– – “It red a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias and a 1.6-fold increase in solid (mainly embryonal) cancers among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations.”

However
In 2011 a new study of the KiKK data was incorporated into an assessment by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE). Studying the incidence of childhood leukemia around British nuclear power plants.
Her blev det tyske studie kritiseret.
Også:
En specifik kritik, i et senere “læserindlæg” til det samme tyske medie.
Og
fra et Kanadisk studie The KiKK Study Explained kommer der også direkte kritik.

Min tilføjelse

Man higer og søger og hvis man er ihærdig, ja så finder man nok noget.
MEN
Hvis man vil være logisk, så bør risiko vurderes med spørgsmålene
– – – – Hvor farligt? og Hvad så?
Dette dilemma er forsøgt behandlet i forbindelse med det der går under betegnelsen: J-Value eller Justification Value.
I et forsøg på at komme nær dette har jeg prøvet at få svar på det nagende spørgsmål: Hvor mange?
I den lidt rodede artikel finder man:
Around 600 [children] who become ill with leukemia yearly [in Germany.]
Og
37 children catching leucemia live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant.

– – Nu er det ikke per år men over en periode på 24 år.
Senere (tabel 5) finder man følgende:
Forventet 24 og observeret 34 (40 % flere)
Deraf konkluderes at der var tale om 10 ekstra tilfælde af leukæmi i en periode på 24 år.
Længere nede, i konklusionen, finder man:
– – “Notably, even after the pooling of all data, in the 24-year study period only 37 cases of leukemia in children under 5 within the 5-km zone were included in the evaluation
Out of a total of 5893 cases of leukemia [for Germany].”

I modsætning til den tyske befolkning vil jeg hævde at:
Skader ved at frasige sig A-kraft vil langt overskride de – måske hypotetiske – skader fra anlæg for A-kraft eller højspænding.

Når man læser artiklen efterlades man desværre med en ubehagelig følelse af at de mange tal skjuler manglende substans
eller et ønske om – – – .

Og
– – Tidsrummet “10 eller 24 år” og andetsteds “årligt” virker (bevidst?)
– – forvirrende.

For at øge forvirringen nævner jeg at tilsvarende studier i hvert fald “frifinder” andre kræftformer og forklarer at disse ekstra tilfælde af kræft kun gælder for leukemi.

Power lines ?

Nær ved A-kraftværker er der naturligvis mange højspændingsledninger og transformatorer.
Flere studier omtaler en sammenhæng mellem højspænding og leukemi blandt børn.
Andre studier tilbageviser.
Se: https://wp.me/s1RKWc-4j

For en ordens skyld har jeg forgæves forsøgt at forklare det med Neutrinos.

Hilsner og god tænkepause
Thorkil Søe


Tilbageblik

07.11.2018 hævdes (formentligt bevises) at olieindustrien allerede kort efter krigen kendte til mekanismen bag klimaændringerne.
I stedet for at advare allierede man sig med forskere der benægtede eller nedtonede sammenhængen.
Kort efter krigen så den blomstrende olieindustri, der var koncentreret omkring Rockefælder Fonden, at den kommende udvikling af atomkraft var en alvorlig konkurrent.
Man fandt en god støtte i den amerikanske forsker Herman Muller, der allerede før krigen havde vist at ioniserende stråling (Røntgen eller Radioaktivt) kunne medføre kromosom-ændringer (nedarvede ændringer ?) i forsøgsdyr. (Bananfluer)
Herved startede den folkelige frygt for radioaktivitet.

Nyttige Idioter

Inden længe (1971) trådte Greenpeace – og specielt eftersnakkere – ind på banen med et utal af false beretninger om en overhængende fare i forbindelse med alt der var forbundet med atomkraft.

Ideologisk Sammenfald ?

Efter alt at dømme var de vestligste “fredsbevægelser” organiseret og støttet fra det gamle Soviet – ikke kun gennem utallige “personlige” bidrag.
Man blev inviteret til “Fredslejre” i Østeuropæiske vasalstater.

Der var – og er – et stærkt “personsammenfald” mellem “anti-atom” og de mange fredsbevægelser.
Det er naturligvis umuligt at afgøre om der også var tale om egentlig økonomisk støtte fra olieindustrien eller senere fra de mange “vedhæng”.

I dag

I løbet af 2018 begynder offentligheden af forstå at der er noget der hedder klimaændringer.
Det betyder at “De Grønne” er i et slemt dilemma:
Kampen mod atomkraft støttes af den siddende amerikanske president, der går ind for mere kulkraft.

Alligevel

er det hævet over enhver tvivl at “De Forurenende” – Både olie og kul – fik, og får, (indirekte) opbakning både fra “De Røde” og fra Greenpeace, der bekæmper og dæmoniserer den fælles fjende: Atomkraft.
På grundlag af dette føler jeg at denne bloks overskrift er berettiget.
_______________________________________________________________________
Kort fortalt betyder det, at vores uvidenhed begrænser vores evne til at erkende vores egen uvidenhed.
___________________________________________________________________
Se om den magiske silver-bullet, der kan omgå de elementære termodynamiske love og lave CO2 om til flydende brændsel.

From The Economist 2017 Feb. 25

I have made major changes in the lay-out:
Mainly headings and line-shifts.
My additions and comments are marked as “indented text” with bullets.
Sometimes, I have used square brackets [ ]
__________________________________________________________________________

Introduction

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines were invented; they still generate only 7% of the world’s electricity.
Yet something remarkable is happening.

  • If the grid has less than say 10 % of the supply from the unstable renewable, this renewable can be incorporated in the system without major problems.
    Above this it starts to act as parasites.

From being peripheral to the energy system, just over a decade ago, they [the renewables] are now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels.

  • As usually it is not discussed, how the varying and partly unpredictable renewables, should pay for the necessary backup.

BP, an oil firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global energy supply over the next 20 years.
It is no longer far-fetched to think that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and cheap power.

About time, too

There is a $20trn drawback, though.
To get from here to there, we will require huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers.

  • $20trn, as an investment, would bring us a long way towards nuclear with future clean and reliable power.
  • Here, as usually, it is “forgotten” that very little will be gained with a strong net to distribute what is not there.
    Or better: For obvious reasons, sunshine is synchronized.
    But in spite of green hopes, the wind is almost synchronized as well.
  • On an other website, I discuss the hopeles dream.

The dirty secret

Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because it offers reliable returns.
Yet green energy has a dirty secret.
The more [subsidized] renewables is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any source.
That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty, need to remain profitable.
If the lights are to stay on.
Unless the market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

Brakes

Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to put the brakes on renewable energy.
In parts of Europe and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut back.
However, the solution is not less wind and solar.
It is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better use of it.

  • It is difficult to understand why nuclear is excluded from being “clean”.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.

For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies.
From the 1980s onwards, many of these were broken up, privatized and liberalized, so that market forces could determine where best to invest.
Today only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.

The pressure

Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonize power supply has brought the state creeping back into markets.

This is disruptive for three reasons.
The first is the subsidy system itself.
The other two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and their very low running costs.

All three help explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are addictive.

1: Substidies

First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about $800bn since 2008, has distorted the market.
It came about for noble reasons – to counter climate change and prime the pump for new, costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels.

  • No. I dare to say that it was not noble reasons.
    $800bn became available because we, in the West, had been brainwashed against nuclear.
  • Try to imagine how it would have been now.
    If these $800bn had been used for nuclear, instead of being lost down into a bottomless green hole?
  • If so, it would have been enough to pay for 160 new reactors as those now exported by Korea to UAE

But subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the financial crisis.
The result was a glut of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

2: Intermittent

Second, green power is intermittent.
The vagaries of wind and sun – especially in countries without favorable weather – mean that turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables falter.

  • Much too often we see how it is assumed, that the (dirty) coal, and especially the (hated) nuclear, should just kick in and act as back-up for the (bellowed) renewables.
  • Here, it is necessary to come forward with the following:
    1) The physical lifetime of these plants will suffer with frequent
    blaramp-up and down.
    2) After a ramp-down, a nuclear plant will suffer Xenon-poisoning.
    blaIn this way, a quick ramp-up may result in an accident as at
    blaChernobyl.
    However, “Western Reactors” are provided with a proper containment.
    Therefore a “Chernobyl Accident” will not cause damage outside the plat.
    3) The costs for power from coal, and especially from nuclear, are
    blamainly fixed costs.
    Elementary economics will show that it is not the best to use coal and nuclear as back-up.
    Therefore:
    4) Back-up will usually be hydro or gas-fired plants.
  • Without subsidies.
    If we want to be “green” it must be with very high economic penalties on pollution.
    In an absolutely free market, nuclear would probably be able to manipulate the prices and kill the economics of renewables.
    Just as the subsidies to the renewable is killing the economy of the rest.

3: Investors

But because conventional power plants are idle for long periods, they find it harder to attract private investors.
So, to keep the lights on, they require public funds.

Everyone is affected by this third factor:
Renewable energy has negligible or zero marginal running costs because the wind and the sun are free.

  • It is claimed, but usually neglected, that the wind-turbines, and especially the gears, have a limited life-time, which is markedly reduced during max loads.

In a market that prefers energy produced at the lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power prices, and hence revenues for all.

Get smart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems get.
Especially in saturated markets.
In Europe, which was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption.
Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split in two.
In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to find investors for new plants.
Places with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind farms to keep coal plants in business.

  • Wind farms in northern China are far away from the necessary back-up provided by stable regulated hydro.
    The necessary power lines are not cheap either.

Re-regulate

The consequence is that the electricity system is being re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from public support.
Paradoxically, that means the more states support renewables, the more they [have to] pay for conventional power plants.
Using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency

  • Capacity payments has been introduced in England.
    In Germany the talk is about “scheduled black outs”.

In effect, politicians rather than markets, are, once again, deciding how to avoid blackouts.

Mistakes

They often make mistakes:
Germany’s support for cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables.
Without a new approach the renewables revolution will stall.
[See also http://wp.me/p1RKWc-11F ]

Technology

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
Digitalization, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies and households to smooth out their demand — by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example.
This helps to cope with intermittent supply.

  • Smart meters and variation in prices has been proposed, and rejected, some 40 years ago.
    See http://wp.me/p1RKWc-1tc
    Anyhow, whatever is done, it will have a limited effect.
  • For the time being, and for the foreseeable future, batteries will not be cheap enough to stabilize the grid for more than very short periods.
  • Much too often we are told, that “Small is Beautiful”.
    However:
    If larger plants cannot be economic, it may not be possible for smaller plants.

Small, modular power plants, which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more efficiently.

  • Can smart grid save the fluctuating wind power?

  • In the discussion about wind power variation, it is often mentioned that ‘we just’ need to connect countries with a strong network of power lines.
  • April 2016 this problem was addressed by Sören Kjärsgaard.
    He provides a very thorough assessment of the energy situation, especially in Denmark and Germany.
    From this report is quoted as follows:
    It is evident that when you have said Wind power you have to say back-up too.
    Could this back-up be:
    European Wind Power connected by a super grid?
    ——– You find data from Austria, Belgium, Czech Rep.,
    ——– Denmark, Spain, France, Finland, Hungary, Poland,
    ——– Sweden and Germany:
    Over this huge area, the Wind Power fluctuates between
    56,512 MW and 3801 MW (7%).

    The answer will be NO – Unfortunately
    No matter, how much smart grid you get, it can not conjure a stable supply.
  • On another page I have tried to analyze the hypothetical situation assuming Wind Only.
    It should not come as a surprise that it will be extremely expensive.
    If at all possible.

The power market

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need for flexible supply and demand.
They should adjust prices more frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather.
At times of extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent blackouts.
Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity to balance the grid.
Just as they reward those who generate more of it.
Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time – a bit like an insurance policy.

  • Sure, but as mentioned above, it will have a long way to go and will be of minor benefit.
    See http://wp.me/p1RKWc-1tc
  • Extremely high prices will have a heavy negative social impact – even if it is for shorter periods.

In short, policymakers should be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing.
Then they should fix it.

Atter, 2019-09-21 kommer The Economist med en lang og grundig vurdering.
Naturligvis uden at angive en reel løsning eller påpege de ansvarlige.
The past present and future of climate change.
Og
Humanity will find ways to adapt to climate change.

Postscript

Tysk solkraft variationFrom Germany: (right)
See http://wp.me/p1RKWc-f8
and
From the American “Sunshine-states”: (below)Duck curve result (2)
Sure you know: I say go nuclear.
If you say Chernobyl, then look at http://wp.me/p1RKWc-Dg
If you say Fukushima, then look at http://wp.me/p1RKWc-yI
Previously, I have tried to get to the same problem on the following:
Is “Western Nuclear” on its death-bead?
Why did nuclear end up to be so expensive?
Passionately, I claim that we have been cheated by “The Green”
Greenpeace’s Credibility is a Myth.

Mere KK mindre forureningIf you want to avoid (unnecessary) pollution.
Better do as in France.

Og.klik påb For sources and references:
Og.klik påb Click on the yellow and see if you get useful details.
Og.klik påb Click on pictures for more details.
__________________________________________________________________________

Units

Bq Becquerel
1 Bq is one radioactive decay per second and is a very small unit.
One adult human contains about 4,500 Bq from natural sources.
More can be found form World Nuclear
Sv Sievert
The Sievert is a measure of the health effect of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Also here World Nuclear gives a good overview of the situation.
A very illustrative, and apparently reliable, Radiation Dose Chart is provided by Wikimedia.
Other Units
Several other units are still used in different literature:
1 Sv = 1 J/kg = 1Gy = 100 rad = 100 rem = 100 Roentgen
Becquerel to Sievert
There is no clear-cut relation between Becquerel and Sievert.
The only guide found is in a paper from Luckey fig. 10. Here you will deduct: 1 mSv = 1.7 kBq/litter.
Without having checked and fearing being wrong I quote:
1000 Bq/m^3 = 4.45 mJ*hour/m^3 = 6.3 mSv

Damage to humans

  • 500 mSv: Careful monitoring of survivors of the nuclear bombing in Japan showed that people who were exposed to 500 mSv or less had no shorter average lifespan than the rest of the population.
    (500 mSv in a single exposure will cause minor symptoms of acute radiation sickness, and is more than 100 times what is normally permitted)
  • 3000 mSv will result in half of the exposed will die and the survivors vill have an average lifespan three years less than the rest of the population.
  • Contrary to many horror stories and calculation of future deaths, there is only a very little correlation between radiation and cancer.

Most predictions and many atrocity stories are based on calculations.
It is usually assumed that no matter how little, then all radiation is harmful (LNT)
However, this hypothesis is clearly at odds with reality.

Types of radiation

Alpha radiation is fast nuclei of helium.
It is stopped by a layer of paper.
Beta radiation is fast electrons.
Both alpha and beta radiation can cause severe skin-burns, but not radiation sickness unless absorbed through the digestive system, or the lungs.
Gamma radiation is ultra short light waves.
It can penetrate the skin and cause severe radiation damage.
Neutrons appear only in connection with nuclear bomb attack.
However, in conection with accidents in relation to tests and wrong handling of plutonium, there may be serious exposure to neutrons.
(At an experiment going wrong and turning into “criticality” a chemist,
Cecil Kelley died from a 200 microseconds blast of Neutron and gamma radiation.)

More about Radiation Sickness: http://wp.me/p1RKWc-Du

englandEnglish translation.
For kilder og henvisninger:
Klik på det der er med gult og se om du får brugbare detaljer.

Og.klik påb Og klik på billeder for at få fuld størrelse.
________________________________________________________________________

Når diskussionen bevæger sig i retning af stråling og virkningerne på den menneskelige sundhed, er der flere forhindringer:
Først, selvfølgeligt: Mangel på pålidelige oplysninger om effekten af et lavt niveau af stråling.
Men et andet stort problem er de mange ukendte enheder, der anvendes.
Også den forvirring, der er forårsaget af uvidenhed.
Nogle gange også ønsker om at benægte fakta.
Endog et ønske fra nogle organisationer, der forsøger at forvandle alt der er relateret til radioaktivitet til at være en stor fare.

Nær slutningen af denne blok vil du finde en evaluering af de latterlige påstande og urealistiske “sikre grænser” i forhold til katastrofen i Fukushima.

Enheder

Bq Becquerel
1 Bq er et radioaktivt henfald per sekund og er en meget lille enhed.
Et voksent menneske indeholder ca. 4.500 Bq fra naturlige kilder.
Mere kan findes på World Nuclear
Sv Sievert
Sievert er et mål for den skadelige effekt af ioniserende stråling på mennesker, såvel som på dyr.
Også her giver World Nuclear et godt overblik over situationen.
Et meget illustrativt, og tilsyneladende pålideligt, Radiation Dose Chart findes på Wikimedia.
Andre enheder
Flere andre enheder er stadig i brug forskellige steder:
1 Sv = 1 J/kg = 1Gy = 100 rad = 100 rem = 100 Roentgen
Becquerel til Sievert
Der er ikke nogen entydig sammenhæng mellem Becquerel og Sievert.
Den eneste vejledning jeg har fundet er på en side fra Luckey fig. 10.
Her kan du udlede: 1 mSv = 1,7 kBq/litter.
Uden at have kontrolleret og frygtede at være forkert, nævner jeg:
1000 Bq/m^3 = 4.45 mJ*hour/m^3 = 6.3 mSv
Linear No Treshold
Forudsætningen om at lige meget hvor lidt, så er det skadeligt, har for snart længe siden måttet give op over for realiteterne.
Enten Eller
Et materiale kan være højradioaktivt eller der kan være radioaktivt i lang tid. Men, i modsætning til mange påstande, ikke begge dele.
Skader fra Stråling
Den megen uvidenhed og den fejlagtige propaganda har resulteret i absurde påstande.
denne side har jeg forsøgt at løfte sløret for realiteter.

Radon

Nu og da kommer radon op i medierne og folk, der bor i “radon huse” kan være bange og vil ofte have svært ved at sælge deres hus.
Wikipedia findes en meget omfattende vurdering om radon.
Herfra, og fra andre kilder, er følgende et kort resumé.

Oprindelse

Radon stammer fra henfald af uran, hovedsageligt fundet i granit i jordskorpen.
Den eneste isotop, der har interesse er Rn 222, der har en halveringstid på omkring fire dage.
Det er en tung ædelgas og vil kun skade, hvis det henfalder i lungerne.
Koncentrationen måles i Bq/m^3 (Henfald per sekund / m^3)

Koncentrationerne kan variere meget fra sted til sted.
I det fri, varierer det fra 1 til 100 Bq/m^3, endnu mindre (0,1 Bq/m^3) over havet.
I huler, i miner, eller i dårligt ventilerede boliger, kan koncentration komme op til 2000 Bq/m^3.
Typiske eksponeringer er omkring 100 Bq/m^3 indendørs og 10-20 Bq/m^3 udendørs.

Udsættelse for radon

Det magiske kur
Lige så meget som radon og stråling er frygtet, har det været set som en magisk kur for alle typer af sygdomme.
I en periode omkring 1915 var radioaktivt vand på mode, indtil nogle rige og entusiastiske mennesker overdoserede og døde en forfærdelig død.
Radon bade – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Radon Treatmeng
Det skal bemærkes, at nu, såvel som længe før radon og radioaktivitet var kendt, har sundhedssøgere frekventeret steder, hvor de får “radon-behandling” for alle typer af sygdomme.
På internettet kan du finde flere reklamer for kurbade og klinikker, som for eksempel: her, her og her. Radioactive Water
Radon i “Sundheds vand”
Selv radon mineralvand blilver reguleret:
Mindste styrke er 74 Bq/l, men følgende er fundet:
Merano: 2000 Bq/l og
Lurisia (Italien): 4000 Bq/l
Tl sammenligning tjener at vi alle bærer rundt på omkring 65 Bq/kg fra naturlige kilder.
Extremes
Høje niveauer af radon findes flere steder.
Bedst kendt er det, der oprindeligt blev kendt som “The Rasmar Paradox”:
En relativt lille befolkningsgruppe ved Rasmar i Iran udsættes for meget høje niveauer af stråling, mest fra radon.
Dette, ikke helt enestående, tilfælde er over 80 gange højere end den baggrundsstråling vi alle udsættes for.
Der har imidlertid ikke været rapporter om dårligt helbred.
Flere andre steder har lignende, men mindre eksponering:
– – • Guarapari (Brasilien)
– – • Cumuruxatiba (Brasilien)
– – • Kerala (Indien)
– – • Karunagappall (Indien)
– – • Arkaroola (South Australia)
– – • Yangjiang (Kina)
– – • Black Beach (Brasilien – Højeste, men ubeboet)

Sandsynligvis findes det højeste registrerede niveau i forbindelse med Watras Incident, som beskrevet lidt senere.
Miner
De sundhedsmæssige virkninger af høj eksponering af radon i miner har været kendt, helt tilbage til 1530.
Det blev først beskrevet af Paracelsus i hans beskrivelse af et langsomt ødelæggende syndrom blandt minearbejdere.
I dag ved man at eksponeringen kan nå op til 1.000.000 Bq/m^3
Det må håbes, at dette er “en saga blot.”
Efter Tjernobyl
Tilsyneladende for at undgå kritik ønskede de Sovjetiske myndigheder at evakuere alle personer, der ville blive udsat for en ekstra livsdosis på
350 mSv.
Hvis tilsvarende skulle implementeres i Norge ville det være nødvendigt at evakuere en halv million indbyggere i området omkring Mjøsa, hvor påvirkningen, fra radon, ville overskride denne grænseværdi.

Radiation Hormesis

Man kan finde en kontroversiel epidemiologisk undersøgelse, der uventet viser reduceret kræftrisiko vs. radon ved eksponering mindre end 200 Bq/m^3.
Dette blev først publiceret af T. D. Luckey, og er omtalt i Wikipedia.

Radon and CancerDet er svært at forstå, hvorfor dette ‘sådan bare’ er blevet afvist af WHO og andre.
Og det er endnu sværere at forstå, hvorfor disse observationer ikke er blevet fulgt op.
En mulig anden årsag er
diskuteret her.

Jeg har forsøgt at sammenfatte eksisterende viden her.

Endnu mere overraskende er forskning der viser at selv meget høje doser af ioniserende stråling ikke har forårsaget de meget frygtede skader på kommende generationer.

De mange forskellige enheder og de ofte modstridende “beviser” har ført til følgende.

Cigaret Unit

Cigaret UnitFra internettet, citerer jeg følgende:
For lang tid siden fik en ekspert i stråling spørgsmålet:
“Hvorfor vil du ikke sammenligne dine resultater til noget folk kan forstå, som for eksempel Cigaret Unit?”
Hans svar var klart:
“Jeg har forsøgt. Det er håbløst. Folk beskylder mig bare for at lyve.”
Fra privat korrespondance med en dansk ekspert, husker jeg noget tilsvarende.
(Desværre har jeg ingen optegnelser eller referencer.)

Watras Incident

Den eneste – forhåbentlig pålidelige, men også temmelig forvirrende information er fundet fra The Guardian og Wikipedia.
Følgende er et uddrag:

  • Radon i enkelte boliger kan lejlighedsvis være størrelsesordener højere end typisk.
    Det blev dramatiseret ved det såkaldte Watras Incident:
    En medarbejder på et amerikansk atomkraftværk udløste sin strålingsmonitor efter han havde været væk fra arbejde flere dage.
    Dette var på trods af, at anlægget endnu ikke var forsynet med brændstof, og på trods af, at medarbejderen havde været dekontamineret og sendt hjem “ren” hver aften.
    Naturligvis forstod man at det indebar en kilde til forurening uden for anlægget.
    Det viste sig at være et radon niveauer på 100.000 Bq/m^3 i hans kælder.
    Den tilsvarende risiko for lungekræft forbundet med at leve i dette hus blev sammenlignet med den ekstrapolerede risiko fra at ryge 135 pakker cigaretter dagligt.

Det er svært at acceptere disse resultater og det bliver endnu vanskeligere, når det bemærkes, at alarmen blev rejst, ikke fordi han eller nogen af hans familie havde lidt af dårligt helbred.
En lignende, men ikke helt så dramatisk begivenhed fandt sted på et svensk atomkraftværk, der blev lukket i flere dage, indtil det blev konstateret at en af de ansatte havde taget sit strålingsmeter med hjem.

Hvad kan ikke undgås?

Lige meget hvor du er, og uanset hvad du gør, har vi alle – såvel som vore forfædre – været udsat for radioaktiv stråling.
Dette, sammen med ‘menneskeskabt eksponering’, er sammenfattet her.

Hvad er tilladt?

Hvis enheder og doser er modstridende, er det intet i forhold til de eksisterende regler.
Det har naturligvis været nødvendigt at udslukke “oplysninger” fra mange såkaldt Grønne Organisationer der tilsyneladende specialiserer sig i skræmmekampagner.
Endvidere kan forskellige politiske udtalelser og regler være stærkt påvirket af frygt for at blive beskyldt for ikke at beskytte offentligheden.

Det er nemt at finde mange, klart modstridende, “fakta” og bestemmelser.
Alt for meget til at gå i detaljer her.
En meget omfattende guide til definitioner og bestemmelser vedrørende bortskaffelse af radioaktivt affald er udgivet af Det Internationale Atomenergiagentur.
Disse retningslinjer bliver tilsyneladende anvendt meget forskelligt i forskellige lande og i forskellige situationer.
Dette har resulteret i følgende, som er et uddrag af World Nuclear.

  • Genbrug af materialer fra nedlukkede nukleare anlæg er begrænset af niveauet af radioaktivitet i dem.
    Dette gælder også for materialer fra andre kilder, som fx anlæg for naturgas.
    Men de niveauer der er tilladt, kan være meget forskellige.
    For eksempel kan skrot fra gasanlæg genbruges, hvis det har mindre end 500.000 Bq/kg (undtagelses niveauet).
    Dette niveau er dog tusind gange højere end clearance niveauet for genbrugsmateriale (både stål og beton) fra den nukleare industri, hvor alt over 500 Bq/kg, ikke kan blive frigjort fra myndighedskontrol til genbrug. – – – –

    Norge og Holland er de eneste lande med ensartede retningslinjer.

Selv i betragtning af det omsiggribende hysteri og det næsten giftige politiske lobbyarbejde, er det svært at forstå dette.

Offentlig interesse

Ofte vil man finde udsagn fra Grønne Organisationer som angiver, at alle niveauer af stråling er farlig.
Med billige og meget præcise Geiger-Tællere er det blevet moderne at finde “farlige” steder.
Selvfølgelig må hjælp fra offentligheden blive værdsat, som for eksempel da en for længst glemt radioaktiv kilde blev fundet i Tokyo.
Men samtidig er det nødvendigt at forholde sig til reelle eller udtænkte farer for det, vi alle er udsat for gennem hele vores liv.

Fukushima

Det er anslået at der blev frigivet radioaktivt materiale mellem 500 PBq og 1000 PBq (10^18 radioaktive henfald per sekund)
Stillehavet dækker 165 millioner km^2 og indeholder 66 millioner km^3 vand.
Hvis vi antager at alle disse 1000 PBq (10^18 Bq) blev ligeligt fordelt over 1% af havet til en dybde på 50 m
Og hvis vi undlader at vurdere at en overveje del, ‘sådan bare’ er “sunket ned” fordi det er tungt materiale, så vil du få 12 Bq/kg.
Hvis du derefter overvejer, at omtrent 90% af det radioaktive udslip er Jpd131 (se side 116 i UNSCEAR 2013 Rapport,) ja så vil 1,2 Bq/kg være aktivt på tidspunktet for disse rædsels-historier.
Endvidere kan det være værd at nævne, at det amerikanske National Academy of Science har henvist til målinger, der viser 7 Bq/m^3 af Fukushima-relatert 137Cs nær den canadiske kontinentalsokkel.
Dette kan dog have været temmelig vanskeligt at måle, i betragtning af, at den naturlige stråling i havet er 11.000 Bq/m^3

For at forholde sig til noget velkendt, kan det nævnes, at vi alle bærer rundt på omkring 65 Bq/kg (65.000 Bq/m^3) som en del af vores menneskelige legeme, eller at et radon niveau på 100.000 Bq/m^3 blev fundet i kælderen i et beboet hus.
Det var ‘sådan bare’ 1000 gange det vi frygter i Danmark.
(Watras Incident, som beskrevet ovenfor.)
Ret mig hvis jeg er forkert.
Fukushima Greenpeace
I betragtning af dette, er det svært at forstå, hvordan veletablerede “Grønne Organisationer” viser kort og angiver “ekstrem fare” relateret til den radioaktive forurening helt ud til den amerikansk vestkyst. Og fortsætte ubesværet ind over land.
1 RAD = 10 mSv
Men denne enhed er (bevidst?) forvirrende og vil ikke have nogen mening, uden angivelse af tid. F.eks. RAD/time.

Uden at kunne kontrollere, tror jeg dog dette link fra The Registrer er mere pålideligt.

Hvis du har tillid til World Nuclear, kan følgende være interessant:

  • En silt barriere har længe været på plads for at forhindre forurening i at nå det åbne hav og at fortyndingsprocesserne på grund af havstrømme betyder, at der ikke kan påvises radioaktivitet i havvand udenfor havnen.

Hvis du er en fan af YouTube og har set “The Ocean of Death”, kan du spekulerer på, hvordan de mange fisk kan være så følsomme, at en stigning i strålingen fra 11.000 til 11.007 Bq/m^3 har forårsaget katastrofen vist på filmen.
I modsætning til stråling, er fisk temmeliglettet følsomme over for ændringer i koncentrationen af salt i vandet.
Så, hvis det ikke er direkte falskneri, vil de døde fisk måske kunne findes uden for et anlæg til afsaltning af havvand.
Udover dette er det værd at se på den sidste tabel på en side fra UNSCEAR.
Her ses det, at den radiologiske tolerance for fisk er sådan ti gange den for pattedyr og fugle.
Hvis du søger på en anden side kan du måske blive lettet ved at se, hvorledes dyrene trives i den stærkt radioaktive og forbudte zone ved Tjernobyl.

Så vidt jeg har forstået, er TEPCOs grænser for forurening af grundvandet, at der ikke må findes mere end 5 Bq/L af beta-radioaktivt materiale og en Bq/L af cæsium-134 og cæsium-137.
Igen bør dette ses i forhold til den naturlige belastning af det menneskelige legeme: 65 Bq/L og af havet: 11 Bq/L

For at være på den sikre side, blev grænsen for eksponering af stråling (helt arbitrært) sat til et millisievert / år.
Dette er “sådan bare” en tiendedel af hvad nogle europæere har været udsat for gennem hele livet.

Min konklusion er klar.
Noget er råddent – et eller andet sted –
Men hvor?

Og.klik påb For sources and references:
Og.klik påb Click on the yellow and see if you get useful details.
Og.klik påb Click on pictures for more details.
__________________________________________________________________________
Now and then we see alarming reports concerning an imminent danger that terrorists will gather radioactive material and use conventional explosives to spread it over a large area, which then will be uninhabitable for a long time.
Apparently nobody has taken the trouble to go into details, except for example to tell:

“They [Isis] are working on a series of attacks with radioactive substance.
A ‘radioactive tsunami’ of Europe which would remove millions of people from the earth.
The largest religious Holocaust the world has seen. “

Source: Jürgen Todenhöfe, who, according Den Korte Avis, has been “voluntary prisoner “for ten days by Isis.
Apparently in order to disclose confidential, but probably carefully selected, “information”.

BUT
Although such a radioactive tsunami has been mentioned many times, it is not possible.

Long before this potential terrorist has collected just 1% of the required radioactive material, he will die a miserable, but not that glorious death from acute radiation sickness.

Thus, this aspiring terrorist be the first and probably the only victim.

Of course there are several reports that radioactive material has been stolen or “lost” and that it comes to eg 50 kg uranium.
Although uranium is not the best material for a dirty bomb, yes it sounds rather deterrent.
If there is to be made more than panic, then there will be need for much more than one ‘can just’ find in hospitals and the like.

Allow me to raise a number of questions, to which I unfortunately can not provide complete answers to – but better than most.

But first:
The many confusing units is a recurring challenge.
Therefore:
Milli Sievert is the unit for biological effects of ionizing (radioactive) radiation.
There has never been found injuries after brief irradiation less than 100 mSv
If the exposure is spread over a longer time, the damage will be noticeably reduced.
500 mSv will cause minor symptoms of acute radiation sickness, but will not call for shorter lifespans.
500 mSv is 100 times the normally permitted.
3,500 mSv will cause half of the irradiated to die and that the survivors will have an average life span three years less than the general population.

Bq Becquerel is a radioactive decay per second and is a very small unit.
We all carry around with some 4,500 Bq from natural sources.

Unfortunately, there is no clear relationship between mSv and Bq

Alpha and beta radiation can cause severe burns – as in severe sunburn.
But otherwise, it will only be dangerous if the radioactive material is eaten or inhaled.
Neutron radiation causes severe radiation damage, but will be found only in connection with a nuclear bomb explosion.
A dirty bomb must thus be based on substances emitting gamma radiation.
.
BUT THEN

How dangerous is ionizing (radioactive) radiation?

  • It is known that populations have lived for generations in areas with fairly high natural radioactivity.
    Far more than the “permissible”.
    However, without the injury has taken place.
    Most pronounced is the area around Ramsar in Pakistan.
    Over 200 mSv/year, mostly from radon.
  • According to The Guardian “Return Movers” (‘babushkas’) live in areas near Chernobyl designated as “Strictly Controlled”.
    Here, the contamination exceeds 555 kBq/m^2
    Number is not stated. But elsewhere is mentioned 270,000, who apparently include people who have moved to areas with only
    37 kBq/m^2

I reject numerous, obvious forgeries atrocity stories which probably comes from Greenpeace or stooges.

  • For political reasons there has been set unrealistically low values ​​for permissible radiation. Both at Chernobyl and Fukushima.
  • But now to the point.
    How much does it take to make a large area uninhabitable?

    And how many kg / ton material will be needed?
    Here I am answer guilty. But it will need much more than a terrorist
    ‘so just’ find in hospitals and the like.
    Of course, you need much more than 555 kBq/m^2
    Presumably tenfold.
    If you want to inflict damage before people will have time to flee – then there will be need for even much more.
    My guess is that it will be necessary to break through the
    two-meter-thick reactor containment and collect more than a ton radioactive fuel.

But now comes the real question:

How should this terrorists protect themselves from radiation while this radioactive material assembled and before it has been spread out?

  • Although you see pictures of “green activists”, wearing white suit with breathing apparatus, then these very large amounts of radioactive material has to be handled by remote control behind a wall of lead.
  • The white suit seen in many images is completely ineffective against radiation, but may give (false) credibility.
  • Do not forget that it is assumed that this radioactive material must be sufficient to kill “countless people” and that it will be necessary to have something that is far beyond a mere bagatelle.

Finally, we wonder:
How will this terrorist distribute this radioactive material so that it can get out and kills many, instead of being concentrated in a limited area?

BUT

A realistic “dirty bomb”, which to our knowledge has never been tried, is something quite different:
It is an ‘ordinary nuclear bomb’ that is surrounded by a second material,
eg cobalt.
It will be radioactive by absorbing some of the neutrons left over from the explosion of the atomic bomb.
But even this will not be enough to create a “Radioactive Tsunami”.

Now if this terrorist mysteriously manages to collect sufficiently high enriched uranium or plutonium of ‘weapons-grade’, it can be assembled and you will get a ‘criticality’ that will cause less harm than you would get by detonating a regular grenade.
In order to have a nuclear bomb to work, it will be necessary to have a very special igniter (Initiator) and a very complicated geometry.
.

  • At a later stage there were some “reasonable people” who found out that biological and chemical weapons are easier to produce and handle than radioactive materials.
  • Possibly the fright value of radioactivity is greater.

.
Now I think, we should leave all further talk of a dirty bomb to the professional horror prophets who ignores the realities, but uses the subject to spread fear, where everything that is dealing with radiation or nuclear distorted to be a high risk .

This of course does not mean that we should neglect the fight against the use of nuclear bombs.
.
More: See:
From Wikipedia: About nuclear safety and security.
Greenpeace’s credibility is a myth.
And if you are not tired, too:
Radiation and Cancer.
Check the facts.

Greetings from Thorkil Søe

PS
If you, my unknown reader, have relevant additions, modifications or factually reasoned objection, I ask you to write to me at thorkilsoee@gmail.com

Postscript

  • In an attempt to find a response it has been argued that just “the threat of radioactivity will cause panic and will thus be even more terrible than a dirty bomb”.
    In a way it is true. But here it is easy to point out the guilty.
  • But all this is nothing compared to the many thousands of children who have to go into adult life as a blind because – – – –
  • Or the millions of orphans who must live in an existence that is not worthy for humans because – – – –